Both Counsellors and Psychotherapists work from a variety of Theoretical Approaches with their clients. These therapies range from the type of Psychoanalysis, originally practised by Sigmund Freud and later developed into other forms of analytic psychotherapy by his pupils, through Humanistic Psychotherapy (based on personal growth and self development) to the Behavioural Therapies used for dealing with specific phobias and anxieties. However there is evidence that the relationship between the counsellor and the client is more important than the approach the therapist uses.

The following is an alphabetical list of commonly used Theoretical Approaches with brief descriptions of their meanings: